Machine learning algorithm identifies precancerous colon polyps

A machine learning algorithm helps accurately differentiate benign and premalignant colorectal polyps on CT colonography scans, according to researchers from the University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich Germany. The findings were reported in the paper, ‘Machine Learning–based Differentiation of Benign and Premalignant Colorectal Polyps Detected with CT Colonography in an Asymptomatic Screening Population: A Proof-of-Concept Study’, published in the journal Radiology.

Nanotherapy is a potential therapy for Crohn's disease in children

Scientists from the Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute at Ann & Robert H Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago have reported that a nanotherapy reduces intestinal inflammation and shrinks lesions in a rodent model of severe Crohn's disease. This approach could become an alternative to biologic antibody therapies that carry many side effects, including increased risk of certain cancers and might also prevent the need for surgery in the future.

Genotoxin colibactin induces genetic changes leading to development of CRC cells

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin have reported that the genotoxin colibactin induces genetic changes that are characteristic of colorectal cancer cells and cause a transformed phenotype after only a few hours of infection. The findings were featured in the paper, ‘Genomic aberrations after short-term exposure to colibactin-producing E. coli transform primary colon epithelial cells’, published in Nature Communications.

Liquid biopsy could guide therapy for CRC tumours

Washington University School of Medicine researchers have reported that a liquid biopsy examining blood or urine can help gauge the effectiveness of therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) that has just begun to spread beyond the original tumour. Such a biopsy can detect lingering disease and could serve as a guide for deciding whether a patient should undergo further treatments due to some tumour cells evading an initial attempt to eradicate the cancer.

Probiotic biofilm formation in gut for cancer immunotherapy

Scientists from Nanjing University and the University of Macau have devised a new approach to extend the survival of transplanted probiotics in vivo, enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemo-/immunotherapies in mice. The approach was outlined in the paper, ‘Smectite promotes probiotic biofilm formation in the gut for cancer immunotherapy’, published in Cell Reports.

Napabucasin fails to reach primary endpoints in patients with previously treated metastatic CRC

Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Oncology has announced that the CanStem303C study evaluating the efficacy and safety of investigational agent napabucasin, when given in combination with FOLFIRI with or without bevacizumab in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer, failed to reach the primary endpoints of overall survival (OS).

Take-at-home FIT boosts colorectal cancer screening tenfold

Colorectal cancer screening rates jumped by more than 1,000 percent when researchers sent take-at-home tests to patients overdue for testing at a community health centre that predominantly serves ethnic minorities. Instead of the oft-standard text message that simply reminds a patient that they are overdue for screening, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania made it the default to send a take-at-home test to the patient's home unless they opted out via a text message prompt.

Risankizumab shows significant improvements in patients with Crohn's Disease

AbbVie has announced positive results from two Phase 3 induction studies, ADVANCE and MOTIVATE, showing both doses of risankizumab (600mg and 1200mg) met both primary endpoints of clinical remission and endoscopic response at week 12 in adult patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. The ADVANCE study enrolled patients who had an inadequate response or were intolerant to conventional and/or biologic therapy. The MOTIVATE study evaluated patients who had responded inadequately or were intolerant to biologic therapy.